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2019-nCoV – CORONAVIRUS: Where did it come from & What MIGHT Happen – Will it Effect YOU? …
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Posted by:
Greg Lance – Watkins
Greg_L-W

eMail:
Greg_L-W@BTconnect.com

ControversiallyGreg@Gmail.com

The BLOG:
https://InfoWebSiteUK.wordpress.com

The Main Web Site:
www.InfoWebSite.UK

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Hi,

followers of my Podcasts, which can be found at: https://chatterboxpodcasts.wordpress.com/

will have noted that one of my first podcasts on (2019-nCoV) Novel CoronaVirus I stated that I was aware that China had a Bio-Warfare & Research facility in the populated area of Wutan, a city with a population of around 11 Million, which is larger than London.

Further: I stated that I was aware that I had heard some time ago that an American authority on Bio-Hazards & Bio-Weapons had stated in 2017 that they were deeply concerned that the standards of security in the Wutan facility and its location in a heavily populated area were gravely concerning as a leak could lead to a catastrophic outcome!

Minded that as at 06-Feb-2020 at 11:20hrs.GMT official records shows that:

Coronavirus Cases:
28,349
           of which 3,863 (14%) are in critical condition

Deaths:

565

Being aware that of the 28,349 recorded cases 28,085 are in China
and that of the 3,863 critical cases 3,859 are in China
and that of the 565 deaths all but 2 are in China
there is every reason to believe that this possible/probable pandemic is the direct responsibility of China.

DO NOTE:

as at 07-Feb-2020 at 23:00hrs.GMT official records show that:

Coronavirus Cases: 34,394
of which 4,826 (15%) are in critical condition

Deaths: 720

ALSO OF NOTE:

Although it would seem China was aware of the outbreak much earlier in January and even perhaps as far back as 2019 – hence the virus nomenclature as 2019-nCoV – it would seem the Chinese response was totally irresponsible, not only as they failed to notify the rest of the world of their catastrophic accident in releasing 2019-nCoV but also proceed with a massive festival in Wutan, prior to Chinese New Year festivities.

It was more than somewhat belatedly that the authorities in China implemented a lockdown of movement in Wutan!

Only now, seemingly at least a month too late China is considering a national ban on travel both internally and internationally! Thereby exposing the rest of the world to their incompetence & folly!

Minded that the last pandemic to ravage mankind was long before the everyday international travel of millions of people by air daily – the Spanish Flu at the end of WWI killed more people in Europe than had the entirety of WWI – killing over 600,000 Americans alone!

The previous pandemic was The Black Death which wiped out around 40% of the population of Europe – today that would be somewhere around 300,000,000 when it happens again, as it surely will.

Could 2019-nCoV be that virus? We can but hope not.

Towards helping to avoid a mass wipeout of those proportions may I suggest that EVERYONE obtains a supply of medical/alcohol hand was and uses it regularly and often – be sure to wipe surfaces & door handle medically, dispose of tissues responsibly & be sure to cover one’s nose and mouth if you sneeze or cough – AT ALL TIMES.

This is Not alarmist but sound common sense and that this does become a global pandemic is unlikely but with your help we can add to the protection that may prevent its spread.

2019 – nCoV more info.:
How contagious is the Wuhan Coronavirus? (Ro) The attack rate or transmissibility (how rapidly the disease spreads) of a virus is indicated by its reproductive number (Ro, pronounced R-nought or r-zero), which represents the average number of people who will catch the disease from a single infected person.

A more recent study is indicating a Ro as high as 4.08. This value substantially exceeds WHO’s estimate (made on Jan. 23) of between 1.4 and 2.5, and is also higher than recent estimates between 3.6 and 4.0 and between 2.24 to 3.58.

Preliminary studies had estimated Ro to be between 1.5 and 3.5.

Based on these numbers, on average every case of the Novel Coronavirus would create 3 to 4 new cases.

An outbreak with a reproductive number of below 1 will gradually disappear.

For comparison, the Ro for the common flu is 1.3 and for SARS it was 2.0.

Be prepared not scared, be concerned not frightened and stay informed.

Below are a few additional sources of information and background, with sources – do PLEASE pass on the information and the URL of this article.
There is some repetition however too much information is far better than too little.

Towards helping to avoid a mass wipeout of those proportions may I suggest that EVERYONE obtains a supply of medical/alcohol hand was and uses it regularly and often – be sure to wipe surfaces & door handle medically, dispose of tissues responsibly & be sure to cover one’s nose and mouth if you sneeze or cough – AT ALL TIMES.

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Creator Of US BioWeapons Act Says Coronavirus Is A Bio Weapon

Written by greatgameindia.com

Dr Francis Boyle Coronavirus Biological Warfare Weapon

Dr. Francis Boyle Creator Of BioWeapons Act Says Coronavirus Is Biological Warfare Weapon

In an explosive interview Dr. Francis Boyle, who drafted the Biological Weapons Act has given a detailed statement admitting that the 2019 Wuhan Coronavirus is an offensive Biological Warfare Weapon and that the World Health Organization (WHO) already knows about it.

Francis Boyle is a professor of international law at the University of Illinois College of Law. He drafted the U.S. domestic implementing legislation for the Biological Weapons Convention, known as the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989, that was approved unanimously by both Houses of the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President George H.W. Bush.

In an exclusive interview given to Geopolitics and Empire, Dr. Boyle discusses the coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China and the Biosafety Level 4 laboratory (BSL-4) from which he believes the infectious disease escaped. He believes the virus is potentially lethal and an offensive biological warfare weapon or dual-use biowarfare weapons agent genetically modified with gain of function properties, which is why the Chinese government originally tried to cover it up and is now taking drastic measures to contain it. The Wuhan BSL-4 lab is also a specially designated World Health Organization (WHO) research lab and Dr. Boyle contends that the WHO knows full well what is occurring.

Dr. Boyle also touches upon GreatGameIndia‘s exclusive report Coronavirus Bioweapon – where we reported in detail how Chinese Biowarfare agents working at the Canadian lab in Winnipeg were involved in the smuggling of Coronavirus to Wuhan’s lab from where it is believed to have been leaked.

Watch Dr. Francis Boyle’s interview with Geopolitics and Empire below:

Dr. Boyle’s position is in stark contrast to the mainstream media’s narrative of the virus being originated from the seafood market, which is increasingly being questioned by many experts.

Recently, American Senator Tom Cotton of Arkansas also dismantled the mainstream media’s claim on Thursday that pinned the coronavirus outbreak on a market selling dead and live animals.

In a video accompanying his post, Cotton explained that the Wuhan wet market (which Cotton incorrectly referred to as a seafood market) has been shown by experts to not be the source of the deadly contagion.

Cotton referenced a Lancet study which showed that many of the first cases of the novel coronavirus, including patient zero, had no connection to the wet market — devastatingly undermining mainstream media’s claim.

“As one epidemiologist said: ‘That virus went into the seafood market before it came out of the seafood market.’ We still don’t know where it originated,” Cotton said.

“I would note that Wuhan also has China’s only bio-safety level four super laboratory that works with the world’s most deadly pathogens to include, yes, coronavirus.”

Such concerns have also been raised by J.R. Nyquist, the well known author of the books “Origins of the Fourth World War” and “The Fool and His Enemy,” as well as co-author of “The New Tactics of Global War”. In his insightful article he published secret speechs given to high-level Communist Party cadres by Chinese Defense Minister Gen. Chi Haotian explaining a long-range plan for ensuring a Chinese national renaissance – the catalyst for which would be China’s secret plan to weaponiz viruses.

Nyquist gave three different data points for making his case in analyzing Coronavirus. He writes:

The third data point worth considering: the journal GreatGameIndia has published a piece titled “Coronavirus Bioweapon – How China Stole Coronavirus From Canada And Weaponized It.”

The authors were clever enough to put Khan’s Virology Journal article together with news of a security breach by Chinese nationals at the Canadian (P4) National Microbiology Lab in Winnipeg, where the novel coronavirus was allegedly stored with other lethal organisms. Last May, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police were called in to investigate; by late July the Chinese were kicked out of the facility. The chief Chinese scientist (Dr. Xiangguo Qiu) was allegedly making trips between Winnipeg and Wuhan.

Here we have a plausible theory of the NCoV organism’s travels: first discovered in Saudi Arabia, then studied in Canada from whence it was stolen by a Chinese scientist and brought to Wuhan. Like the statement of Taiwan’s intelligence chief in 2008, the GreatGameIndia story has come under intensive attack. Whatever the truth, the fact of proximity and the unlikelihood of mutation must figure into our calculations.

It’s highly probable that the 2019-nCoV organism is a weaponized version of the NCoV discovered by Saudi doctors in 2012.

Meanwhile, the mainstream media’s narrative still maintains that the origin of the 2019 Coronavirus is the Wuhan Seafood Market. After GreatGameIndia published the story on Coronavirus Bioweapon – not only were our databse tinkered with and our reports blocked by Facebook on the flimsy reason that they could not find GreatGameIndia Facebook page, but the report itself was viciously attacked by Foreign Policy magazine, PolitiFact (known widely as Facebook’s propaganda arm) and BuzzFeedNews.

It is not GreatGameIndia alone which is being viciously attacked. Zero Hedge, a popular alternate media blog was suspended by Twitter for publishing a story related to a study by Indian scientists finding 2019 Wuhan Coronavirus to be not naturally evolved, raising the possibility of it being created in a lab. Shockingly, the study itself came under intense online criticism by Social Media experts resulting in the scientists withdrawing the paper.

In retaliation India has launched a full-scale investigation against China’s Wuhan Institute of Virology. The Indian government has ordered an inquiry into a study conducted in the Northeastern state of Nagaland (close to China) by researchers from the U.S., China and India on bats and humans carrying antibodies to deadly viruses like Ebola.

The study came under the scanner as two of the 12 researchers belonged to the Wuhan Institute of Virology’s Department of Emerging Infectious Diseases, and it was funded by the United States Department of Defense’s Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

The study, conducted by scientists of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, the National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), the Wuhan Institute of Virology, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in the U.S. and the Duke-National University in Singapore, is now being investigated for how the scientists were allowed to access live samples of bats and bat hunters (humans) without due permissions.

The results of the study were published in October last year in the PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases journal, originally established by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

To view this article CLICK HERE

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Dr. Francis Boyle Creator Of BioWeapons Act Says Coronavirus Is Biological Warfare Weapon

| Last modified on February 6th, 2020 at 1:00 pm,

In an explosive interview Dr. Francis Boyle, who drafted the Biological Weapons Act has given a detailed statement admitting that the 2019 Wuhan Coronavirus is an offensive Biological Warfare Weapon and that the World Health Organization (WHO) already knows about it.

Dr Francis Boyle Coronavirus Biological Warfare Weapon
Dr. Francis Boyle Creator Of BioWeapons Act Says Coronavirus Is Biological Warfare Weapon

Francis Boyle is a professor of international law at the University of Illinois College of Law. He drafted the U.S. domestic implementing legislation for the Biological Weapons Convention, known as the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989, that was approved unanimously by both Houses of the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President George H.W. Bush.

In an exclusive interview given to Geopolitics and Empire, Dr. Boyle discusses the coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China and the Biosafety Level 4 laboratory (BSL-4) from which he believes the infectious disease escaped. He believes the virus is potentially lethal and an offensive biological warfare weapon or dual-use biowarfare weapons agent genetically modified with gain of function properties, which is why the Chinese government originally tried to cover it up and is now taking drastic measures to contain it. The Wuhan BSL-4 lab is also a specially designated World Health Organization (WHO) research lab and Dr. Boyle contends that the WHO knows full well what is occurring.

Dr. Boyle also touches upon GreatGameIndia‘s exclusive report Coronavirus Bioweapon – where we reported in detail how Chinese Biowarfare agents working at the Canadian lab in Winnipeg were involved in the smuggling of Coronavirus to Wuhan’s lab from where it is believed to have been leaked.

Watch Dr. Francis Boyle’s interview with Geopolitics and Empire below:

India in Cognitive Dissonance Book by GreatGameIndia

Read here the full transcript of Dr. Francis Boyle’s interview on Coronavirus

Dr. Boyle’s position is in stark contrast to the mainstream media’s narrative of the virus being originated from the seafood market, which is increasingly being questioned by many experts.

Recently, American Senator Tom Cotton of Arkansas also dismantled the mainstream media’s claim on Thursday that pinned the coronavirus outbreak on a market selling dead and live animals.

In a video accompanying his post, Cotton explained that the Wuhan wet market (which Cotton incorrectly referred to as a seafood market) has been shown by experts to not be the source of the deadly contagion.

Cotton referenced a Lancet study which showed that many of the first cases of the novel coronavirus, including patient zero, had no connection to the wet market — devastatingly undermining mainstream media’s claim.

“As one epidemiologist said: ‘That virus went into the seafood market before it came out of the seafood market.’ We still don’t know where it originated,” Cotton said.

“I would note that Wuhan also has China’s only bio-safety level four super laboratory that works with the world’s most deadly pathogens to include, yes, coronavirus.”

Tom Cotton

@SenTomCotton

China claimed—for almost two months—that coronavirus had originated in a Wuhan seafood market. That is not the case. @TheLancet published a study demonstrating that of the original 40 cases, 14 of them had no contact with the seafood market, including Patient Zero.

Embedded video

Such concerns have also been raised by J.R. Nyquist, the well known author of the books “Origins of the Fourth World War” and “The Fool and His Enemy,” as well as co-author of “The New Tactics of Global War”. In his insightful article he published secret speechs given to high-level Communist Party cadres by Chinese Defense Minister Gen. Chi Haotian explaining a long-range plan for ensuring a Chinese national renaissance – the catalyst for which would be China’s secret plan to weaponiz viruses.

Nyquist gave three different data points for making his case in analyzing Coronavirus. He writes:

The third data point worth considering: the journal GreatGameIndia has published a piece titled “Coronavirus Bioweapon – How China Stole Coronavirus From Canada And Weaponized It.”

GreatGameIndia@GreatGameIndia

EXCLUSIVE Bioweapon Thread

How China Stole Coronavirus From Canada And Weaponized Ithttps://greatgameindia.com/coronavirus-bioweapon/ 

Coronavirus Bioweapon – How China Stole Coronavirus From Canada And Weaponized It | GreatGameIndia

Coronavirus Bioweapon : How Chinese agents stole Coronavirus from Canada’s National Microbiology Laboratory and weaponized it into a Bioweapon.

greatgameindia.com

The authors were clever enough to put Khan’s Virology Journal article together with news of a security breach by Chinese nationals at the Canadian (P4) National Microbiology Lab in Winnipeg, where the novel coronavirus was allegedly stored with other lethal organisms. Last May, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police were called in to investigate; by late July the Chinese were kicked out of the facility. The chief Chinese scientist (Dr. Xiangguo Qiu) was allegedly making trips between Winnipeg and Wuhan.

Here we have a plausible theory of the NCoV organism’s travels: first discovered in Saudi Arabia, then studied in Canada from whence it was stolen by a Chinese scientist and brought to Wuhan. Like the statement of Taiwan’s intelligence chief in 2008, the GreatGameIndia story has come under intensive attack. Whatever the truth, the fact of proximity and the unlikelihood of mutation must figure into our calculations.

Geopolitics & Empire@Geopolitics_Emp

A recent email we received telling us not to share a link to the @GreatGameIndia website. My best guess is they are lying about the trojan in an attempt to get us to censor information. https://greatgameindia.com/weaponizing-biotech-chinas-war-for-biological-dominance/ 

View image on Twitter
See Geopolitics & Empire’s other Tweets
It’s highly probable that the 2019-nCoV organism is a weaponized version of the NCoV discovered by Saudi doctors in 2012.

Meanwhile, the mainstream media’s narrative still maintains that the origin of the 2019 Coronavirus is the Wuhan Seafood Market. After GreatGameIndia published the story on Coronavirus Bioweapon – not only were our databse tinkered with and our reports blocked by Facebook on the flimsy reason that they could not find GreatGameIndia Facebook page, but the report itself was viciously attacked by Foreign Policy magazine, PolitiFact (known widely as Facebook’s propaganda arm) and BuzzFeedNews.

It is not GreatGameIndia alone which is being viciously attacked. Zero Hedge, a popular alternate media blog was suspended by Twitter for publishing a story related to a study by Indian scientists finding 2019 Wuhan Coronavirus to be not naturally evolved, raising the possibility of it being created in a lab. Shockingly, the study itself came under intense online criticism by Social Media experts resulting in the scientists withdrawing the paper.

In retaliation India has launched a full-scale investigation against China’s Wuhan Institute of Virology. The Indian government has ordered an inquiry into a study conducted in the Northeastern state of Nagaland (close to China) by researchers from the U.S., China and India on bats and humans carrying antibodies to deadly viruses like Ebola.

GreatGameIndia@GreatGameIndia

MUST READ

TRANSCRIPT of the exclusive interview conducted by @Geopolitics_Emp with Bioweapons expert Dr. Francis Boyle on the origins of . Dr Boyle drafted the US Bioweapons Act for the Bioweapons Convention followed by numerous countries.https://greatgameindia.com/transcript-bioweapons-expert-dr-francis-boyle-on-coronavirus/ 

TRANSCRIPT: Bioweapons Expert Dr. Francis Boyle On Coronavirus | GreatGameIndia

Transcript of the interview with Bioweapons expert Dr. Francis Boyle on the origins of 2019 Wuhan Coronavirus Biological Warfare Weapon.

greatgameindia.com

GreatGameIndia@GreatGameIndia

– renowned Winnipeg based Canadian National Microbiology Laboratory scientist key to investigation has died in mysterious conditions in Africa. He was the one who received Saudi SARS Coronavirus sample which was smuggled to Wuhanhttps://greatgameindia.com/frank-plummer-canadian-lab-scientist-key-to-coronavirus-investigation-assassinated/ 

Frank Plummer – Canadian Lab Scientist Key To Coronavirus Investigation Assassinated? | GreatGame…

Frank Plummer, the Winnipeg based Canadian Lab scientist key to Coronavirus investigation has been assassinated in mysterious conditions.

greatgameindia.com

The study came under the scanner as two of the 12 researchers belonged to the Wuhan Institute of Virology’s Department of Emerging Infectious Diseases, and it was funded by the United States Department of Defense’s Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

The study, conducted by scientists of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, the National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), the Wuhan Institute of Virology, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in the U.S. and the Duke-National University in Singapore, is now being investigated for how the scientists were allowed to access live samples of bats and bat hunters (humans) without due permissions.

The results of the study were published in October last year in the PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases journal, originally established by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

As the author J.R. Nyquist puts it:

We need your support to carry on our independent and investigative research based journalism on the external and internal threats facing India. Your contribution however small helps us keep afloat. Kindly consider donating to GreatGameIndia.

We must have an investigation of the outbreak in Wuhan. The Chinese must grant the world total transparency. The truth must come out. If Chinese officials are innocent, they have nothing to hide. If they are guilty, they will refuse to cooperate.

The real concern here is whether the rest of the world has the courage to demand a real and thorough investigation. We need to be fearless in this demand and not allow “economic interests” to play a coy and dishonest game of denial. We need an honest inquiry. We need it now.

GreatGameIndia is a journal on Geopolitics and International Relations. Get to know the Geopolitical threats India is facing in our exclusive book India in Cognitive Dissonance. Past magazine issues can be accessed from the Archives section.

Read more on Chinese Biological and Chemical warfare activities against India in our exclusive History of Narco-Terrorism issue.

To view the original article CLICK HERE

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TRANSCRIPT: Bioweapons Expert Dr. Francis Boyle On Coronavirus

A recent interview with Bioweapons expert Dr. Francis Boyle published by GreatGameIndia and conducted by Geopolitics & Empire, has been exploding across the world the past few days as the truth is emerging on the origins of the Coronavirus Bioweapon.

Francis Boyle is a professor of international law at the University of Illinois College of Law. He drafted the U.S. domestic implementing legislation for the Biological Weapons Convention, known as the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989, that was approved unanimously by both Houses of the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President George H.W. Bush.

TRANSCRIPT Bioweapons Expert Dr Francis Boyle's Interview On Coronavirus
TRANSCRIPT: Bioweapons Expert Dr Francis Boyle’s Interview On Coronavirus

In the exclusive interview, Dr. Boyle touches upon GreatGameIndia‘s exclusive report Coronavirus Bioweapon – where we reported in detail how Chinese Biowarfare agents working at the Canadian lab in Winnipeg were involved in the smuggling of Coronavirus to Wuhan’s lab from where it is believed to have been leaked.

In this bombshell interview (full transcript below), Boyle talks about:

  • The bioweapons origins of the coronavirus
  • How the Deep State deployed anthrax on US soil to whip up publicity about biological weapons and increase funding for bioweapons labs
  • Why the WHO and CDC are both criminal organizations which are complicit in the covert development of biological weapons
  • The “death science” industry and why the US government has spent over $100 billion developing self-replicating weapons
  • Details about the Pirbright Institute and its ties to bioweapons, depopulation, vaccines and coronavirus patents. (It’s partially funded by Bill & Melinda Gates)
  • Why all BSL-3 and BSL-4 labs in the world should be banned and shut down.

Full transcript


Geopolitics and Empire: Geopolitics & Empire is joined by Dr. Francis Boyle, who is international law professor at the University of Illinois. We’ll be discussing the Wuhan coronavirus and biological warfare. He’s served as counsel to numerous governments such as Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Palestinian authority. He’s represented numerous national international bodies in the areas of human rights, war crimes and genocide, nuclear policy, and biowarfare. He’s written numerous books, one of my favorites being “Destroying Libya and World Order”, which I assigned as mandatory reading material for my own students when I taught at the Monterrey Institute of Technology.

India in Cognitive Dissonance Book by GreatGameIndia

But most important for this interview, he’s written a book called “Biowarfare and Terrorism”, and drafted the US domestic implementing legislation for the biological weapons convention, known as the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989 that was approved unanimously by both houses of the US Congress and signed into law by President Bush. Thanks for joining us, Dr. Boyle.

Dr. Francis Boyle: Wow. Thank you so much for having me on and thanks for that kind introduction.

Geopolitics and Empire:  Now let’s get to what’s been on the news recently. This coronavirus in Wuhan. There have been some reports recently, there’s a really interesting website called GreatGameIndia that has been reporting on this. They’ve been talking about China, which they say has been complying with biological weapons convention in recent years.

GreatGameIndia@GreatGameIndia

EXCLUSIVE Bioweapon Thread

How China Stole Coronavirus From Canada And Weaponized Ithttps://greatgameindia.com/coronavirus-bioweapon/ 

Coronavirus Bioweapon – How China Stole Coronavirus From Canada And Weaponized It | GreatGameIndia

Coronavirus Bioweapon : How Chinese agents stole Coronavirus from Canada’s National Microbiology Laboratory and weaponized it into a Bioweapon.

greatgameindia.com

But then there are some people in the US and experts that have been saying that in reality, China isn’t complying with the weapons convention. And I think neither, perhaps the US as well. I’m wondering if China is developing its own biosafety level four lab in Wuhan and elsewhere, as you know, as a type of deterrence. Is it a type of a biological arms race that we have going on?

You told me in an email that you suspect China was developing the coronavirus as a dual use of biowarfare weapons agent. Also, what do you make of reports that Chinese scientists have been stealing research and viruses, including the coronavirus from a Canadian bio lab this past December?

And as well, Chinese nationals have been charged with smuggling vials of biological research to China from the US with the aid of Charles Lieber who was the chair of Harvard’s chemistry department. And he also happens to be in 2011 a strategic scientist at Wuhan University. So, can you tell us what’s going on with this recent outbreak in Wuhan?

Dr. Francis Boyle: Well, that’s a lot of questions. I guess we can take them one at a time, but if you just do a very simple Google search on “Does China have a BSL-4 laboratory?”, Wuhan comes up right away. It’s at the top of the list. That’s all with the moment this type of thing happened I began to do that. So a BSL-4 is the most serious type. And basically BSL-4 labs, we have many of them here in the United States, are used to develop offensive biological warfare weapons with DNA genetic engineering.

So it does seem to me that the Wuhan BSL-4 is the source of the coronavirus. My guess is that they were researching SARS, and they weaponize it further by giving it a gain of function properties, which means it could be more lethal.

Indeed, the latest report now is it’s a 15% fatality rate, which is more than SARS at 83% infection rate. A typical gain of function travels in the air so it could reach out maybe six feet or more from someone emitting a sneeze or a cough. Likewise, this is a specially designated WHO research lab. The WHO was in on it and they knew full well what was going on there.

Yes. It’s also been reported that Chinese scientists stole coronavirus materials from the Canadian lab at Winnipeg. Winnipeg is Canada’s formal center for research, developing, testing, biological warfare weapons. It’s along the lines of Fort Detrick here in the United States of America. I have three degrees from Harvard. It would not surprise me if something was being stolen out of Harvard to turn over to China. I read that report. I don’t know what was in those vials one way or the other.

But the bottom line is I drafted the US domestic implementing legislation for the Biological Weapons Convention that was approved unanimously by both Houses in the United States Congress signed into law by President Bush Sr. that it appears the coronavirus that we’re dealing with here is an offensive biological warfare weapon that leaped out of Wuhan BSL-4. I’m not saying it was done deliberately. But there had been previous reports of problems with that lab and things leaking out of it. I’m afraid that is what we are dealing with today.

GreatGameIndia@GreatGameIndia

MUST READ

TRANSCRIPT of the exclusive interview conducted by @Geopolitics_Emp with Bioweapons expert Dr. Francis Boyle on the origins of . Dr Boyle drafted the US Bioweapons Act for the Bioweapons Convention followed by numerous countries.https://greatgameindia.com/transcript-bioweapons-expert-dr-francis-boyle-on-coronavirus/ 

TRANSCRIPT: Bioweapons Expert Dr. Francis Boyle On Coronavirus | GreatGameIndia

Transcript of the interview with Bioweapons expert Dr. Francis Boyle on the origins of 2019 Wuhan Coronavirus Biological Warfare Weapon.

greatgameindia.com

GreatGameIndia@GreatGameIndia

– renowned Winnipeg based Canadian National Microbiology Laboratory scientist key to investigation has died in mysterious conditions in Africa. He was the one who received Saudi SARS Coronavirus sample which was smuggled to Wuhanhttps://greatgameindia.com/frank-plummer-canadian-lab-scientist-key-to-coronavirus-investigation-assassinated/ 

Frank Plummer – Canadian Lab Scientist Key To Coronavirus Investigation Assassinated? | GreatGame…

Frank Plummer, the Winnipeg based Canadian Lab scientist key to Coronavirus investigation has been assassinated in mysterious conditions.

greatgameindia.com

Geopolitics and Empire: We’ll be talking about the Wuhan and the coronavirus and China, but can you give us kind of like a bigger context. I know you’ve, previously, in interviews said that since 9/11, you think that the US has spent $100 billion on biological warfare research. We know the Soviet Union, if I’m not mistaken, developed anthrax as a bioweapon. And you’ve also mentioned that UK, France, Israel and China are all involved in biological warfare weapons research.

And something interesting, I believe one or two years ago a Bulgarian journalist and the Russian government shared their concern of the discovery of a US bioweapons lab in the country of Georgia. You’ve commented how in Africa, US has set up bioweapons labs to work on Ebola, which I think is illegal under international law. But they were allowed somehow to put those in Africa. Can you give us like a bigger picture? What’s going on with these different countries and what’s the purpose of this research?

Dr. Francis Boyle:All these BSL-4 labs are by United States, Europe, Russia, China, Israel are all there to research, develop, test biological warfare agents. There’s really no legitimate scientific reason to have BSL-4 labs. That figure I gave $100 billion, that was about 2015 I believe. I had crunched the numbers and came up with that figure the United States since 9/11.

To give you an idea that’s as much in constant dollars as the US spent to develop the Manhattan Project and the atom bomb. So it’s clearly all weapons related. We have well over 13,000 alleged life science scientists involved in research developed testing biological weapons here in the United States. Actually this goes back it even precedes 9/11 2001.

I have another book, The Future of International Law and American Foreign Policy, tracing that all the way back to the Reagan administration under the influence of the neocons and they got very heavily involved in research development testing of biological weapons with DNA genetic engineers. It was because of that I issued my plea in 1985 in a Congressional briefing sponsored by the Council for Responsible Genetics, I’m a lawyer for them. They’re headquartered in Cambridge, Mass. All the MIT, Harvard people are involved in that, the principal ones. And then they asked me to draft the implementing legislation.

The implementing legislation that I drafted was originally designed to stop this type of work. “Death science work”, I call it, “by the United States government”. After 9/11, 2001, it just completely accelerated. My current figure, that last figure a 100 billion. I haven’t had a chance to re-crunch the numbers because I just started classes. But you have to add in about another 5 billion per year.

Basically, this is offensive biological weapons raised by the United States government and with its assistance in Canada and Britain. And so other States, the world have responded accordingly including Russia and China. They were going to set up a whole series of BSL-4 facilities as well. And you know Wuhan was the first. It backfired on them.

Geopolitics and Empire: Would you basically consider what happened and Wuhan and just boil it down to ineptitude or incompetence on the Chinese part?

Dr. Francis Boyle: Well, it’s criminality. It does appear they stole something there from Winnipeg. This activity that they engaged in clearly violates the Biological Weapons Convention. Research development of biological weapons these days is an international crime, the use of it would be. That was criminal.

I’m not saying they deliberately inflicted this on their own people, but it leaked out of there and all these BSL-4 facilities leak. Everyone knows that who studies this. So this was a catastrophe waiting to happen. Unfortunately, it happened. The Chinese government under Xi and his comrades there have been covering this up from the get-go. The first reported case was December 1, so they’d been sitting on this until they couldn’t anymore. And everything they’re telling you is a lie. It’s propaganda.

The WHO still refuses to declare a global health emergency. It said Tedros was over there shaking hands with Xi and smiling and yanking it up. The WHO was in on it. They’ve approved many of these BSL-4 labs., they know exactly what’s going on and that is a WHO research-approved laboratory. They know what’s going on too. You can’t really believe anything the WHO is telling you about this, either they’re up to their eyeballs in it, in my opinion.

Geopolitics and Empire: I’d probably agree with you that this outbreak in Wuhan was an accidental leak from the laboratory. But just your thoughts, it’s happening at quite an opportune time because namely we’re smack in the middle of a US-China new Cold War, which is currently characterized by economic warfare such as the trade war among other forms of hybrid and technological warfare. And it seems the Wuhan outbreak will likely hit the Chinese economy hard. The Chinese are flat out dismissing any idea that the US is involved in. Like I said, it’s probably they made the mistakes in the Wuhan lab. What are your thoughts of any seemingly, this would benefit the US…

Dr. Francis Boyle: When the outbreak occurred, of course I considered that alternative too. When you have an outbreak, you’re never quite sure who or what is behind it. It certainly isn’t bats, that’s ridiculous. They made the same argument on Ebola in West Africa. I demolished that online. You can check it out. So I kept competing theories about this.

But right now, when you originally contacted me, I said I wasn’t prepared to comment because I was weighing the evidence. I’m a law professor and a lawyer,  I try to do the best I can to weigh the evidence. But right now, the Wuhan BSL-4 in my opinion is the most likely source, apply Occam’s razor, the simplest explanation. I’m not ruling out some type of sabotage. But right now, I believe that is the source here.

Geopolitics and Empire: And you mentioned WHO. I’d like to just get your thoughts on the WHO and the Big Pharma. There’s also some analysts who are downplaying this news media hype of the coronavirus. You’ve just said that it seems to be lethal, but if we go back a decade to the 2009 swine flu, which I believe didn’t have too many casualties, but I think profited greatly the pharmaceutical companies. If I recall that back in 2009, many countries purchased great stocks of the vaccines and they ended up not using anywhere from 50 to 80% of the vaccines that they purchased.

You’ve previously stated in an interview that the World Health Organization is a front for Big Pharma if I’m not mistaken. Robert F. Kennedy Jr. also agrees and he says, you know, 50% of WHO funding comes from pharmaceutical companies. And that the CDC itself is also severely compromised. What are your thoughts on the WHO? The CDC?

Dr. Francis Boyle:Can’t trust anything the WHO says because they’re all bought and paid for by Big Pharma and when they work in cahoots with the CDC, which is the United States government, they work in cahoots with Fort Detrick, so you can’t trust any of it.

However, the swine flu and yes, I agree pharma made a lot of money, but that swine flu which I looked at it, it did seem to me to be a genetically modified biological warfare weapon. It was a chimera of three different types of genetic strains that someone put it together in a cocktail. Fortunately, it was not as lethal as all of us fear. So fine. But as I said, this figure I just gave to you was Saturday from Lancet, which is a medical publication, saying it’s a 15% fatality rate and an 83% infection rate. So it’s quite serious, I think, far more serious than the swine flu.

As for big pharma, sure they’re all trying to profit off this today as we speak. There was a big article yesterday in the Wall Street Journal, all big pharma trying to peddle whatever they can over there in China even if it’s worthless and won’t help. We do know, if you read the mainstream news media they say there isn’t a vaccine.

Well, there is, it’s by the Pirbright Institute in Britain that’s tied into their biological warfare program over there. They were behind the hoof and mouth disease outbreak over there that wiped out their cattle herd and it leaked out of there. So it’s clear they’re working on a hoof and mouth biological warfare weapon, but the vaccine is there. I have the patent for it here, I haven’t had a chance to read the patent it’s about 25 pages long and my classes just resume. So eventually, I get some free time and I’ll read the patent.

You can’t patent a vaccine with the United States patent office unless the science is there. So there is a vaccine. Everyone’s lying about that, no one’s pointing this out – there’s a vaccine but instead big pharma wants to make money and the researchers say, well, it’ll take three months and we’re racing forward, you know. Everyone’s gonna make a buck off of this, that’s for sure. But there is a vaccine, I have the patent here. It’s been patented by the United States government.

So obviously, I don’t know exactly how workable it is, but it’s a vaccine. I don’t know why it isn’t out there now? Why isn’t someone saying there is a vaccine? Perhaps political leaders have already been vaccinated for all I know, I really don’t know.  But there is a vaccine, Pirbright is well known there in Britain and it’s tied into Fort Detrick and CDC is tied into Fort Detrick too. So they all know there’s a patented vaccine.

Geopolitics and Empire:  And just to get your comment on, I mean, something to related to this, which was my next question. So I think, I’m not sure if it’s that same Institute that you just mentioned that has the patent.  I read somewhere that the Bill & Melinda Gates foundation maybe funds or has some connection to that Institute that has the patent.

Dr. Francis Boyle:  I think they do. The Bill & Melinda Gates information, they fund this type of DNA genetically engineered biological warfare work. That’s correct. So you can’t trust anything they’re telling you that somehow they’re out there trying to make the world a better place.  I mean, we have Bill Gates publicly admitting that the world be a better place if there were a lot less people. So the Bill & Melinda Gates foundation, they are wolves in sheep’s clothing and they are funding this type of stuff. Sure.

Geopolitics and Empire: And just your comment, there was also the report that I guess it was a consortium of companies which included the Gates foundation that back in just two or three months ago in October of 2019 they held a pandemic exercise simulating an outbreak. I mean, what are the chances specifically of a coronavirus and it was called events 201. People can find this online online and they gave a list of seven recommendations for governments and international organizations to take. I also find that kind of interesting how they had this simulation.

Dr. Francis Boyle:  That’s correct. It raises that question,  the origins of what happened here.  But right now, I’m just looking at the evidence I have and applying Occam’s razor and we know that Wuhan BSL-4 was research developing, testing, SARS as a biological warfare agent. So it could have been, they gave it this DNA genetic engineering enhanced properties gain of function which we do here in the West, in the United States all the time. We have  all sorts of research that is clearly a bio warfare research that has been  approved by the National Institutes of Health, it’s a joke. They know full well they are proving all kinds of biological warfare research and it gets funded by the United States government.

Geopolitics and Empire:  And you’ve also mentioned in the email to me that what happened in the biosafety lab level 4 in Wuhan calls into question the safety of all of these level 3and 4four labs around the world.

Dr. Francis Boyle:They’re complete unsafe. BSL-3 and BSL-4 lab are only designed for research development testing of offense of biological warfare agents.  In my opinion, they serve no legitimate purpose at all. They should all be shut down, every one of them. Even assuming, they’re simply too dangerous. If you want, there’s an excellent  documentary called Anthrax Wars by Nadler and Coen and I’m in there.  Repeatedly at the end, I say with respect to these labs, three and four, this is a catastrophe waiting to happen. Well, I’m afraid the catastrophe is now happened. So there it is.

Geopolitics and Empire:  Yeah, I was just watching that documentary before we connected and I recommend the listeners go check that out. Do you see, in the future, any countries,  if we come to a conflict between US, EU, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Iran, China, Russia,  I mean you name it. Do you see any of these countries actually utilizing these biological weapons?  I mean, it’s illegal under international law but we know like in the past that international law isn’t followed. Do you think that there’s a real danger of this escalating?

Dr. Francis Boyle: For sure. That’s the only reason they develop these biological weapons to eventually be used, sure.  I mean, it’s like the Manhattan project, we put all that money into developing an atom bomb and even though it was not needed to end world war II they still knew Hiroshima and Nagasaki. So, yes,  I think that’s correct.  And also these can be used covertly. Anytime you see an unexplained  sudden outbreak of a disease like this anywhere in the world, both for human beings and or animals, I always suspect the bio warfare agent is at work.  I monitor the situation like I did at Wuhan until I can reach a conclusion. Yes, they can be used as the eyes for the United States government, today they are fully prepared, armed, equipped, supplied to wage a biological warfare with anthrax.

These other more exotic things I don’t know, but they have the weapons, there are stockpiles. We have to understand if you read Seymour Martin Hersh’s book published about 1968, he won the Pulitzer prize, he had the whole offensive US biological warfare industry in there back before it was illegal and criminal. Basically after 9/11, 2001, that entire industry – offensive biological warfare industry has been reconstituted here in the United States with all these BSL-4 BSL-3 labs, well over 13,000, alleged scientists sort of like Dr. Mengele working on these things. Other countries have responded in kind like Russia, like China, France is involved, Britain’s involved. Sure.

Geopolitics and Empire: I just wanted to get your thoughts on, in the last few years there was the Russian double agent spy Sergei Skripal who had been allegedly poisoned with Novichok out in Britain and  I thought it was funny. It just so happened where he was allegedly poisoned, he was right in Porton down the British bio weapons lab, I guess the world’s first bio weapons lab that was created in 1916. I mean,  I don’t know if you have thoughts on that whole incident.

Dr. Francis Boyle: Yeah, I was right down the street from Porton Down, so applying Occam’s razor who you think might’ve been behind this and it was not a nerve agent. A nerve agent would have killed him immediately. This is Novichok. It was something else like DX or something like that. So fine. But, I would just say that I don’t think that was a coincidence, but, you know, there you go. There’s the, obviously there’s a lot of speculation on that.

Geopolitics and Empire: Something else that’s kind of interesting. You’ve written in bio warfare and terrorism in your book and there’s also Graeme Macqueen, I think your colleague who wrote the anthrax deception the case for domestic conspiracy…

Dr. Francis Boyle:  Everything you said in there. That’s correct.

Geopolitics and Empire:  I’m wondering also if this new war for biotechnological dominance, whatever you want to call it, if it can also be used kind of as a pretext for the centralization of political power and the initiation of wars like I guess it did in the 2003 Iraq war. I mean, is this another danger that we get these events like now this coronavirus and then governments will call for a centralization of greater power and taking away some of our civil liberties?

Dr. Francis Boyle:  Sure. If you look at the October, 2001 anthrax attacks here in the United States, that was clearly by elements of the United States government that was behind that. That was a super weapons grade anthrax with a trillion spores per gram and it floated in the air solely a very sophisticated biological weapons lab like Fort Detrick could produce that. And they use that anthrax attack including on Congress to brand through the USA Patriot act which basically turned the United States to a police state which is what we have now. You have to understand the Pentagon, Fort Dietrich made the dugway proving ground still has a stockpile of that super weapons grade anthrax that we saw in October of 2001 that they can use the next time they want to do something like that to further develop the American police thing. Right.

Geopolitics and Empire:  Is there anything else you feel important to mention regarding this Wuhan Coronavirus outbreak or biological warfare or any other thoughts you’d like to leave us with?

Dr. Francis Boyle:Well, you just can’t believe anything the Chinese government, the WHO,  the CDC are telling. They’re all lies because they know what’s going on here  and so you’re going to have to figure it out as fast as you can. But in my opinion, as of this time and I’m fully prepared to consider further evidence on this, it does seem to me that this was  a DNA genetically engineered biological warfare agent leaking out of Wuhan that has gain-of-function properties which can make it more lethal.  I think they are probably doing something with SARS to make it a lot more lethal and more infectious. And so for that reason,  you have to take extreme precautions and they’re now finally admitted anyone within six feet can be infected, whereas with SARS that was about two feet. Well, that’s gaining a function right there and that should be a tip off.

So, I guess you’re gonna have to protect yourself.  Laurie Garrett had a pretty good essay in a foreign policy yesterday and she was over there covering the SARS and she has very good advice in there except that she took the SARS figure out two to three feet and said  well, you gotta stay to two to three. I think you’ve got to stay at least six feet away because this is gained function. It can flow through the air and infect and it can get you in the eyes. Any orifice, the mouth, maybe the ears, we’re not sure at this point.

Geopolitics and Empire: I’m here on the border of China in Kazakhstan and I was just reading yesterday – today that they’re no longer allowing Chinese citizens into Kazakhstan without a medical paper, a medical check to get their visas to enter Kazakhstan

Dr. Francis Boyle:  Those medical checks are worthless because this is just public relations by all the governments involved because there is a 14 day incubation period where people can still be infected. So someone could walk right through a medical inspection and passing a gate into your country and then they come down with the coronavirus.  So that’s all public relations in my opinion by governments and they know it and they’re just sending people out there with temperatures and things like that. It’s not like SARS, this is more dangerous than SARS.  As I said, I think that Wuhan lab, we know they had SARS in there that they were dealing with and I think they enhanced it at and  I’m afraid that’s what we’re dealing with. But you know, I’m keeping an open mind as to what other sources that might have and I wasn’t prepared to say anything until that Wuhan lab is right there and it’s dealing with coronavirus. So again, apply Occam’s razor. It seems to me that’s the simplest explanation here.

Geopolitics and Empire: I guess my, one of my final question would be in the months ahead, apart of what you say staying six feet away from people.  I’ve read taking high doses of vitamin C and other things like this can help you. But, if they come out as the situation develops and if it gets worse and they come out with a coronavirus vaccine,  should people take it or not? What are your thoughts?

Dr. Francis Boyle:  Well, what I would say is this. Right now, if you look at the article at the Wall Street Journal, big pharma is trying to sell all sorts of – they’re taking all their drugs off the shelf and say well let’s see if it works. Which is preposterous. Okay. The scientists are saying, well, we can get you a vaccine maybe two to three months but they’re not tested.  So what we do know, however, is that Pirbright vaccine has been patented. So all I can assume is that that might work. But I don’t think I’d be taking any of these other vaccines. No, you have no idea what’s in there. You’ll be the Guinea pig for big pharma and everyone figures they’re gonna make a lot of money here. So I’ll keep my eye open on this  and how it develop but I wouldn’t trust anything they’re trying to sell right now. They’re just pulling these things off the shelf.

If they do come up with something in two to three months, even that’s not going to be tested in accordance with normal scientific protocol. So it’s going to be a crap shoot. If it’s going to help you, indeed it might not help you because they’ll be using for this vaccines (these DNA genetic engineered vaccines) they’ll be using live coronavirus probably and sticking it in there and giving you some live coronavirus on the theory you’ll develop an immunityThat’s the way a lot of these vaccines worked out, that’s what happened with the Ebola vaccine that created the Ebola pandemic there in West Africa. They were testing out a vaccine on poor black Africans, as usual, and  this vaccine had live Ebola in it so it gave them Ebola. So again, I’d be very careful even if they do come up with these vaccines two to three months from now, very careful. Why would you want to inject the live coronavirus in you?

Geopolitics and Empire: All right. I don’t believe you have a strong online presence. How can people best follow your work? I suppose to search for interviews as well as get your books.

Dr. Francis Boyle:Well, basically I’m blackballed and blacklisted off all the mainstream news media here on purpose. As far as I can figure out, the US government gave an order that I should not be interviewed by anyone, so I’m not.  I guess you could just put my name in there under Google, Google alert, and some interviews might come up. What happened was, right after the anthrax attacks of 9/11 2001, I was giving a lecture out at Harvard m Alma Mater.  I was running a panel on biological warfare for the council for responsible genetics and it was at Harvard Divinity School and as I was going in, there was a Fox camera crew there from Boston and I said it looks to me like this has come out of the US government lab. We know they do research and testing on anthrax. Then I said the same thing there at Harvard then I gave an interview to a radio station in Washington, D C then I gave an interview on that to the BBC. So the whole world saw it and at that point I was completely cut off and I’ve been cut off  ever since. So you  probably not going to hear too many  interviews from me here. As for my book. Biowarfare & Terrorism, you can just get it at amazon.com. That picks up the story pretty much from 9/11 2001 and until it went to press and then there are interviews I’d given to an investigative reporter, Sherwood Ross and a big one I just sent you and you might want to put that on your web page. That was pretty comprehensive.

Geopolitics and Empire: Yeah,  I read that as well and I’ll include the link in the description of this interview so people can go check that out. You’re not the only academic I know and have heard of others that similar things have happened and that’s just I guess the price we pay for telling the truth. Again, for listeners, if people wanted to have a broader context and deeper understanding of what’s happening today especially with biological warfare as well as us foreign policy and international affairs, I urge you to get Dr. Francis Boyle’s books and listen to his interviews as well as his colleagues book. Graeme Macqueen, The Anthrax Deception, The Case For Domestic Conspiracy. Thank you for being with us, Dr. Boyle.

Dr. Francis Boyle: Well, thank you and again, please understand these are my current opinions.  I could change my opinion here based on more evidence. So  I’m just looking at the evidence out there as I see it and you have to understand there is so much disinformation, lies and propaganda that it’s kind of very difficult to distinguish truth from fact.  I’m doing the best job I can here.

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A global pandemic hit 100 years ago. This is what happened next (msn.com)

A polemic/essay on the subject follows:

Global recovery from a historic pandemic

1 of 33 Photos in Gallery: Many parallels have been drawn between the COVID-19 pandemic and the 1918 Spanish Flu, which killed at least 50 million people worldwide and infected around a third of the global population. But if there’s anything to give us some comfort in the current crisis, it’s the reminder that the world has survived a pandemic before. From the US to Spain, South America to India, read on to see what happened after the Spanish Flu hit.
Many parallels have been drawn between the COVID-19 pandemic and the 1918 Spanish Flu, which killed at least 50 million people worldwide and infected around a third of the global population. But if there’s anything to give us some comfort in the current crisis, it’s the reminder that the world has survived a pandemic before. From the US to Spain, South America to India, read on to see what happened after the Spanish Flu hit.

The global impact of Spanish Flu

2 of 33 Photos in Gallery: Spanish Flu was a deadly strain of influenza with symptoms that included a fever, persistent cough, excessive sweating and respiratory problems, with some infected people developing pneumonia. A first, less severe outbreak began in spring 1918, with the first known case reported in Fort Riley, Kansas in the US on 11 March 1918, although cases could have appeared earlier. A second, more severe wave spread in the autumn of 1918 and it was this that caused the high death tolls associated with the Spanish Flu today.

Spanish Flu was a deadly strain of influenza with symptoms that included a fever, persistent cough, excessive sweating and respiratory problems, with some infected people developing pneumonia. A first, less severe outbreak began in spring 1918, with the first known case reported in Fort Riley, Kansas in the US on 11 March 1918, although cases could have appeared earlier. A second, more severe wave spread in the autumn of 1918 and it was this that caused the high death tolls associated with the Spanish Flu today.

The Spanish Flu didn’t originate in Spain

3 of 33 Photos in Gallery: Despite its name, the Spanish Flu did not originate in Spain, although it was the first place to receive media coverage of it as Spain was neutral in World War I and had greater press freedom. It was also&nbsp;one of the countries worst affected&nbsp;by the pandemic. In an article on 22 May 1918, Madrid's&nbsp;ABC newspaper nicknamed the disease Soldado de Nápoles (Soldier of Naples) after a popular song at the time, which paved the way for the illness not to be taken seriously. And this proved to be fatal.&nbsp;

Despite its name, the Spanish Flu did not originate in Spain, although it was the first place to receive media coverage of it as Spain was neutral in World War I and had greater press freedom. It was also one of the countries worst affected by the pandemic. In an article on 22 May 1918, Madrid’s ABC newspaper nicknamed the disease Soldado de Nápoles (Soldier of Naples) after a popular song at the time, which paved the way for the illness not to be taken seriously. And this proved to be fatal. 

But it did kill more than 186,000 Spaniards

4 of 33 Photos in Gallery: When the Spanish government became aware of the real danger posed by the disease, it implemented policies including school and university closures,&nbsp;cancellation of public transport and stay-at-home measures. But by the time many of these restrictions came into place it was too late. The health system couldn’t cope with the sudden influx of cases and medical students had to be recruited to make up doctor numbers. In total, the death toll was more than 186,000 between 1918 and 1920, according to El País. The high death rate caused the Spanish population to shrink by 4% in the year 1918, and Spain had a sharp drop in life expectancy&nbsp;from 42.5 years in 1917 to 30.3 years in 1918. Pictured is an illustration of a hospital set up in Madrid in 1890 to deal with a previous epidemic.

When the Spanish government became aware of the real danger posed by the disease, it implemented policies including school and university closures, cancellation of public transport and stay-at-home measures. But by the time many of these restrictions came into place it was too late. The health system couldn’t cope with the sudden influx of cases and medical students had to be recruited to make up doctor numbers. In total, the death toll was more than 186,000 between 1918 and 1920, according to El País. The high death rate caused the Spanish population to shrink by 4% in the year 1918, and Spain had a sharp drop in life expectancy from 42.5 years in 1917 to 30.3 years in 1918. Pictured is an illustration of a hospital set up in Madrid in 1890 to deal with a previous epidemic.

And impacted Spain’s finances

5 of 33 Photos in Gallery: Data on the economic impact of Spanish Flu is limited, although Spain’s death toll likely brought long-lasting financial consequences. Spain had been slower to industrialise than other European countries including Belgium, France, Germany and Austria, only entering the second stage of industrial development – characterised by a surge in manufacturing and capital goods industries – in the 1920s. The pandemic is estimated to have reduced an average country's real per capita GDP by 6% and consumption by 8.1%, according to a recent economic research paper.

Data on the economic impact of Spanish Flu is limited, although Spain’s death toll likely brought long-lasting financial consequences. Spain had been slower to industrialise than other European countries including Belgium, France, Germany and Austria, only entering the second stage of industrial development – characterised by a surge in manufacturing and capital goods industries – in the 1920s. The pandemic is estimated to have reduced an average country’s real per capita GDP by 6% and consumption by 8.1%, according to a recent economic research paper.

Germany saw 14,000 soldiers die of the Spanish Flu

6 of 33 Photos in Gallery: As German troops began a series of attacks known as the Ludendorff Offensive, starting in March 1918, the first wave of the influenza pandemic hit. It reduced the number of troops in combat and undermined the strength of the offensive – although the fact that it also impacted French, British and US troops makes it impossible to attribute the offensive’s failure solely to the influenza virus. During the deadlier second wave in the autumn, 14,000 German soldiers reportedly died of the Spanish Flu, yet that figure could be much higher when wartime censorship is accounted for.

As German troops began a series of attacks known as the Ludendorff Offensive, starting in March 1918, the first wave of the influenza pandemic hit. It reduced the number of troops in combat and undermined the strength of the offensive – although the fact that it also impacted French, British and US troops makes it impossible to attribute the offensive’s failure solely to the influenza virus. During the deadlier second wave in the autumn, 14,000 German soldiers reportedly died of the Spanish Flu, yet that figure could be much higher when wartime censorship is accounted for.

Post-WWI the German economy faltered

7 of 33 Photos in Gallery: The German economy faltered throughout the early 1920s, although this probably had more to do with the Treaty of Versailles, which ordered Germany to pay sizeable reparations to France and Britain, than the influenza outbreak. The 1920s saw an unprecedented rise in social spending which, combined with lower revenues, resulted in increasing deficits. On top of that, inflation rose rapidly. Hyperinflation in 1923 was caused by the closing of factories in the French-Belgian occupied Ruhr valley, which meant that idle workers were paid with a currency that was rapidly losing its value.

The German economy faltered throughout the early 1920s, although this probably had more to do with the Treaty of Versailles, which ordered Germany to pay sizeable reparations to France and Britain, than the influenza outbreak. The 1920s saw an unprecedented rise in social spending which, combined with lower revenues, resulted in increasing deficits. On top of that, inflation rose rapidly. Hyperinflation in 1923 was caused by the closing of factories in the French-Belgian occupied Ruhr valley, which meant that idle workers were paid with a currency that was rapidly losing its value.

Germany’s industrial production only recovered in 1927

8 of 33 Photos in Gallery: What’s more, other countries put protective tariffs on German exports, making it harder for Germany to sell goods to other countries and worsening the impacts of the depression that ensued. The economy began to recover when the German currency was restabilised in 1923, followed by the Allies’ agreement to end its occupation of the Ruhr in 1924 and to make repayment terms for the Treaty of Versailles more manageable. It wasn’t until 1927 that German industrial production returned to pre-war levels. Ultimately, Germany’s path to economic recovery after World War I and the Spanish Flu was long and slow.

What’s more, other countries put protective tariffs on German exports, making it harder for Germany to sell goods to other countries and worsening the impacts of the depression that ensued. The economy began to recover when the German currency was restabilised in 1923, followed by the Allies’ agreement to end its occupation of the Ruhr in 1924 and to make repayment terms for the Treaty of Versailles more manageable. It wasn’t until 1927 that German industrial production returned to pre-war levels. Ultimately, Germany’s path to economic recovery after World War I and the Spanish Flu was long and slow.

The first case in the UK was in May 1918

9 of 33 Photos in Gallery: The flu initially entered the UK through the port of Glasgow in Scotland, where the first case was recorded in May 1918, and had spread to London by June. Measures taken to curtail its spread included the closure of some&nbsp;schools and local press adverts against shaking hands and making contact with others. Yet in many cases it was business as usual – most schools, factories and churches remained open. It wasn’t until October 1918 that there was any real response from parliament. Pictured is a man spraying a bus with soap to prevent the spread of the disease.

The flu initially entered the UK through the port of Glasgow in Scotland, where the first case was recorded in May 1918, and had spread to London by June. Measures taken to curtail its spread included the closure of some schools and local press adverts against shaking hands and making contact with others. Yet in many cases it was business as usual – most schools, factories and churches remained open. It wasn’t until October 1918 that there was any real response from parliament. Pictured is a man spraying a bus with soap to prevent the spread of the disease.

Spanish Flu killed 228,000 British people

10 of 33 Photos in Gallery: By the summer of 1919, around 228,000 people had died from the influenza in Britain and a quarter of the population had been infected. The spread of the disease had also been worsened by the lack of medical staff, as a large number of doctors remained on the front lines at the end of the war. There was a brief post-war economic boom between 1919 and 1920, but after that economic growth throughout the 1920s was stagnant, while unemployment rose to 10% and remained high until World War II.

By the summer of 1919, around 228,000 people had died from the influenza in Britain and a quarter of the population had been infected. The spread of the disease had also been worsened by the lack of medical staff, as a large number of doctors remained on the front lines at the end of the war. There was a brief post-war economic boom between 1919 and 1920, but after that economic growth throughout the 1920s was stagnant, while unemployment rose to 10% and remained high until World War II.

The UK’s economic recovery wasn’t until the mid-1930s

11 of 33 Photos in Gallery: By the middle of the 1920s more than two&nbsp;million British&nbsp;people were unemployed. The reintroduction of the gold standard by Winston Churchill in 1925, which linked the currency’s value to the value of gold, made British exports more expensive and less competitive in a global market. Meanwhile, deflation meant that people were less inclined to spend money and increased the debt burden. The UK recovery from the war and influenza was slow, and it wasn’t until around 1934 that the economy began to improve thanks to the decision to leave the gold standard, cuts in interest rates and targeting higher inflation.

By the middle of the 1920s more than two million British people were unemployed. The reintroduction of the gold standard by Winston Churchill in 1925, which linked the currency’s value to the value of gold, made British exports more expensive and less competitive in a global market. Meanwhile, deflation meant that people were less inclined to spend money and increased the debt burden. The UK recovery from the war and influenza was slow, and it wasn’t until around 1934 that the economy began to improve thanks to the decision to leave the gold standard, cuts in interest rates and targeting higher inflation.

More than half a million Americans died

12 of 33 Photos in Gallery: The pandemic hit the US badly, killing 500,000-675,000 people. Yet its effects varied between cities – those that went into lockdown fastest were most effective at reducing the death rate according to a 2007 research paper. The city of St. Louis, Missouri quarantined citizens two days after the first case arrived and had a low death toll of 358 people per 100,000. In comparison, Philadelphia’s first case was recorded on 17 September 1918 and it didn’t implement social distancing measures until 3 October, after allowing a city-wide parade to take place on 28 September. The death toll was high at 748 deaths per 100,000.

The pandemic hit the US badly, killing 500,000-675,000 people. Yet its effects varied between cities – those that went into lockdown fastest were most effective at reducing the death rate according to a 2007 research paper. The city of St. Louis, Missouri quarantined citizens two days after the first case arrived and had a low death toll of 358 people per 100,000. In comparison, Philadelphia’s first case was recorded on 17 September 1918 and it didn’t implement social distancing measures until 3 October, after allowing a city-wide parade to take place on 28 September. The death toll was high at 748 deaths per 100,000.

US cities that attacked the Flu fast had lower death rates

13 of 33 Photos in Gallery: After studying 17 US cities, researchers concluded that the first peak in excess pneumonia and influenza death rates during the 1918 influenza pandemic "was 50% lower in cities that implemented multiple NPIs (non-pharmaceutical interventions) to control disease spread...than in cities that made such interventions late or not at all”. Strikingly, a disproportionate number of victims were aged between 15 and 44, meaning the disease killed people who were at prime working ages. This led to wage shortages and labour increases, while greater strain was put on social security.

After studying 17 US cities, researchers concluded that the first peak in excess pneumonia and influenza death rates during the 1918 influenza pandemic “was 50% lower in cities that implemented multiple NPIs (non-pharmaceutical interventions) to control disease spread…than in cities that made such interventions late or not at all”. Strikingly, a disproportionate number of victims were aged between 15 and 44, meaning the disease killed people who were at prime working ages. This led to wage shortages and labour increases, while greater strain was put on social security.

Those fast-acting US cities also saw better economic recovery

14 of 33 Photos in Gallery: Yet just as the implementation of social distancing had varied across US cities, so too did the economic fallout. According to a recent paper by two Federal Reserve economists and an MIT professor, those cities that put lockdown measures in place soonest did not have adverse economic impacts over the medium term. The researchers concluded:&nbsp;“Cities that intervened earlier and more aggressively do not perform worse and, if anything, grow faster after the pandemic is over. Our findings thus indicate that NPIs (non-pharmaceutical interventions) not only lower mortality; they may also mitigate the adverse economic consequences of a pandemic.” Pictured is an open-air court being held in San Francisco.

Yet just as the implementation of social distancing had varied across US cities, so too did the economic fallout. According to a recent paper by two Federal Reserve economists and an MIT professor, those cities that put lockdown measures in place soonest did not have adverse economic impacts over the medium term. The researchers concluded: “Cities that intervened earlier and more aggressively do not perform worse and, if anything, grow faster after the pandemic is over. Our findings thus indicate that NPIs (non-pharmaceutical interventions) not only lower mortality; they may also mitigate the adverse economic consequences of a pandemic.” Pictured is an open-air court being held in San Francisco.

Canada lost 55,000 lives to Spanish Flu

15 of 33 Photos in Gallery: In Canada, the Spanish Flu claimed the lives of an estimated 55,000 people&nbsp;out of a population of 8.7 million. For comparison, World War I&nbsp;killed approximately 60,000 Canadians. The disease first arrived in the port cities of Montréal, Québec City and Halifax in the spring of 1918, before spreading west across the country. In September 1918 the city of Victoria hosted a Eucharistic Congress attended by 40,000 people, which undoubtedly helped the disease to spread.&nbsp;

In Canada, the Spanish Flu claimed the lives of an estimated 55,000 people out of a population of 8.7 million. For comparison, World War I killed approximately 60,000 Canadians. The disease first arrived in the port cities of Montréal, Québec City and Halifax in the spring of 1918, before spreading west across the country. In September 1918 the city of Victoria hosted a Eucharistic Congress attended by 40,000 people, which undoubtedly helped the disease to spread. 

Canadian authorities didn’t emphasise the seriousness of the disease

16 of 33 Photos in Gallery: Despite the fact that Canadian health authorities had been accustomed to tracking infectious diseases, they were slow to emphasise the seriousness of this one. According to historian Mark Humphries, speaking to the New York Times:&nbsp;“What’s remarkable about the Spanish Flu is how little worry it caused within professional circles. It was very much treated as just another of many different public health problems.” Factors including overcrowding, poor sanitation and prevalence of health conditions such as tuberculosis worsened the impact&nbsp;of the disease in Canada.

Despite the fact that Canadian health authorities had been accustomed to tracking infectious diseases, they were slow to emphasise the seriousness of this one. According to historian Mark Humphries, speaking to the New York Times: “What’s remarkable about the Spanish Flu is how little worry it caused within professional circles. It was very much treated as just another of many different public health problems.” Factors including overcrowding, poor sanitation and prevalence of health conditions such as tuberculosis worsened the impact of the disease in Canada.

Canadian incomes fell by 15%

17 of 33 Photos in Gallery: The Canadian government responded to the crisis by founding the Department of Health in 1919, which aimed to take shared responsibility for controlling, preventing and managing diseases across all levels of government. As for the Canadian economy, real income per capita in Canada fell nearly 15% between 1919 and 1921. Fortunately, the economy bounced back quickly, and by 1923&nbsp;per capita incomes were almost back to pre-Spanish Flu&nbsp;levels, and up until 1929 the country experienced a period of economic expansion, technological advancement and improvement of living standards.

The Canadian government responded to the crisis by founding the Department of Health in 1919, which aimed to take shared responsibility for controlling, preventing and managing diseases across all levels of government. As for the Canadian economy, real income per capita in Canada fell nearly 15% between 1919 and 1921. Fortunately, the economy bounced back quickly, and by 1923 per capita incomes were almost back to pre-Spanish Flu levels, and up until 1929 the country experienced a period of economic expansion, technological advancement and improvement of living standards.

Italy saw 466,000 deaths from Spanish Flu

18 of 33 Photos in Gallery: Among the hardest-hit countries in Europe, Italy had an estimated 466,000 deaths from influenza. Schools were shut after the first serious case was reported, although health and educational authorities did not immediately accept this decision. Matters worsened when the country’s largest and most influential newspaper, the Corriere della Sera, was forced by the government to stop reporting daily death tolls in Milan as it was thought to be too negative.

Among the hardest-hit countries in Europe, Italy had an estimated 466,000 deaths from influenza. Schools were shut after the first serious case was reported, although health and educational authorities did not immediately accept this decision. Matters worsened when the country’s largest and most influential newspaper, the Corriere della Sera, was forced by the government to stop reporting daily death tolls in Milan as it was thought to be too negative.

Italy suffered economically from WWI and the Spanish Flu

19 of 33 Photos in Gallery: The censorship of the press led to public misunderstanding of disease control measures, while there was little transparency about government decision-making. The Italian economy faltered in the post-war years of 1919-1920, although this had more to do with the impact of the war than the pandemic. The government had printed more money to manufacture weapons quickly during the war, only to find that inflation intensified. By the end of 1920, the Italian lira was worth just a sixth of its 1913 value.

The censorship of the press led to public misunderstanding of disease control measures, while there was little transparency about government decision-making. The Italian economy faltered in the post-war years of 1919-1920, although this had more to do with the impact of the war than the pandemic. The government had printed more money to manufacture weapons quickly during the war, only to find that inflation intensified. By the end of 1920, the Italian lira was worth just a sixth of its 1913 value.

Post-war Italy saw high levels of unemployment

20 of 33 Photos in Gallery: As the government was no longer putting&nbsp;in orders to large manufacturing and shipbuilding firms, many of them went bankrupt and unemployment rose to two&nbsp;million as former troops returned looking for work. There was an economic downturn between 1920 and 1921, which resumed in the early months of 1922. Economic recovery was driven by an increase in energy production and consumption, as well as an increase in imports of raw materials. (Poster reads: "Hygienic precautions to be taken against the flu")

As the government was no longer putting in orders to large manufacturing and shipbuilding firms, many of them went bankrupt and unemployment rose to two million as former troops returned looking for work. There was an economic downturn between 1920 and 1921, which resumed in the early months of 1922. Economic recovery was driven by an increase in energy production and consumption, as well as an increase in imports of raw materials. (Poster reads: “Hygienic precautions to be taken against the flu”)

Up to 300,000 people died from Spanish Flu in Poland

21 of 33 Photos in Gallery: Poland had between 200,000 to 300,000 influenza-related deaths between 1918 and 1920, according to recent estimates. News of the pandemic first arrived in Poland in the summer of 1918 and it had begun to spread rapidly by September. It was exacerbated by poor sanitation, with Poland’s rural areas hit particularly hard as the government failed to warn villages of the disease’s dangers and provide adequate medicines.

Poland had between 200,000 to 300,000 influenza-related deaths between 1918 and 1920, according to recent estimates. News of the pandemic first arrived in Poland in the summer of 1918 and it had begun to spread rapidly by September. It was exacerbated by poor sanitation, with Poland’s rural areas hit particularly hard as the government failed to warn villages of the disease’s dangers and provide adequate medicines.

Poland’s sanitation problems caused the disease to spread

22 of 33 Photos in Gallery: Polish cities were not spared Spanish Flu’s brutal impacts either. In Kraków the disease spread very quickly, and people demanded that sanitation was improved&nbsp;such as cleaning large public areas, which were believed to be the source of infection. In a recent paper published in the online journal Epidemiology: Open Access, author Jan Wnęk wrote of public attitudes:&nbsp;“They did not believe in taking the preventive measures recommended by doctors, such as isolation of patients, disinfection of premises, considering them superfluous”.

Polish cities were not spared Spanish Flu’s brutal impacts either. In Kraków the disease spread very quickly, and people demanded that sanitation was improved such as cleaning large public areas, which were believed to be the source of infection. In a recent paper published in the online journal Epidemiology: Open Access, author Jan Wnęk wrote of public attitudes: “They did not believe in taking the preventive measures recommended by doctors, such as isolation of patients, disinfection of premises, considering them superfluous”.

But by 1927 Poland had one of Europe’s strongest currencies

23 of 33 Photos in Gallery: Poland underwent significant inflation between 1918 and 1923, which then shifted into hyperinflation. The cost of the Polish-Soviet War (1919-1920) was the main reason for&nbsp;hyperinflation, with the country undergoing short stints of stabilisation&nbsp;followed by an economic slump and a brief banking crisis in the two years that followed. The economy began to bounce back from 1926 and the Polish złoty, although devalued by around 41%, finally stabilised in 1927, becoming one of Europe’s most stable currencies.

Poland underwent significant inflation between 1918 and 1923, which then shifted into hyperinflation. The cost of the Polish-Soviet War (1919-1920) was the main reason for hyperinflation, with the country undergoing short stints of stabilisation followed by an economic slump and a brief banking crisis in the two years that followed. The economy began to bounce back from 1926 and the Polish złoty, although devalued by around 41%, finally stabilised in 1927, becoming one of Europe’s most stable currencies.

Sweden lost 1% of its population to Spanish Flu

24 of 33 Photos in Gallery: As it was not involved in World War I, Sweden has become a useful example for looking at the impact&nbsp;of the Spanish Flu in isolation. It took the lives of 38,000 people, representing around 1% of the Swedish population at the time, with the first case reported in southern Sweden in late June 1918. In a research paper published in the Journal of Health Economics, authors argue that the pandemic led to lower capital returns and an increase in the number of people using poorhouses.

As it was not involved in World War I, Sweden has become a useful example for looking at the impact of the Spanish Flu in isolation. It took the lives of 38,000 people, representing around 1% of the Swedish population at the time, with the first case reported in southern Sweden in late June 1918. In a research paper published in the Journal of Health Economics, authors argue that the pandemic led to lower capital returns and an increase in the number of people using poorhouses.

Sweden experienced an economic downturn 1920-21

25 of 33 Photos in Gallery: Even though the war had given rise to a period of economic growth in Sweden, the country was hit by a sharp downturn in 1920-1921 where GDP decreased 5% in just one year, and there were large increases in unemployment. After the economic crisis, Swedish industries improved their production and distribution methods, increasing production and the quality of goods. The strength of Swedish industry later helped its economy to fare better in the Great Depression.
Even though the war had given rise to a period of economic growth in Sweden, the country was hit by a sharp downturn in 1920-1921 where GDP decreased 5% in just one year, and there were large increases in unemployment. After the economic crisis, Swedish industries improved their production and distribution methods, increasing production and the quality of goods. The strength of Swedish industry later helped its economy to fare better in the Great Depression.

India was the worst-affected country in the world

26 of 33 Photos in Gallery: Death rates for the Spanish Flu were higher in African and Asian countries, compounded by overcrowding and poor healthcare. India was the worst affected country in the world, with between 17 and 18 million people killed by the influenza outbreak – around 6% of the population. The disease was thought to have first entered the country through the port of Bombay (pictured), now Mumbai, in June 1918.
Death rates for the Spanish Flu were higher in African and Asian countries, compounded by overcrowding and poor healthcare. India was the worst affected country in the world, with between 17 and 18 million people killed by the influenza outbreak – around 6% of the population. The disease was thought to have first entered the country through the port of Bombay (pictured), now Mumbai, in June 1918.

Inequality in India impacted who died from Spanish Flu

27 of 33 Photos in Gallery: The country’s poor healthcare, combined with a drought that led to widespread famine, worsened the impacts of the disease. There were inequalities between different castes, with the death rate among lower-caste Hindus at 61 per 1,000, while among higher-caste Hindus a much lower death rate of 18.9 per 1,000 was recorded. The jobs held by these lower-caste Hindus, including cleaning and sweeping, made them more susceptible to the disease.
The country’s poor healthcare, combined with a drought that led to widespread famine, worsened the impacts of the disease. There were inequalities between different castes, with the death rate among lower-caste Hindus at 61 per 1,000, while among higher-caste Hindus a much lower death rate of 18.9 per 1,000 was recorded. The jobs held by these lower-caste Hindus, including cleaning and sweeping, made them more susceptible to the disease.

The pandemic in India fuelled the independence movement

28 of 33 Photos in Gallery: The impact on the economy was striking. In the year 1918, India’s real GDP growth reached its lowest level in recorded history (10.5%), while inflation reached all-time highs (only to be topped during World War II) according to the Central Statistics Office and OECD data. The economy took a long time to recover and dissatisfaction with the colonial government's handling of the pandemic fuelled India’s independence movement, led by Mahatma Gandhi (pictured), who&nbsp;contracted the influenza in its second wave.

The impact on the economy was striking. In the year 1918, India’s real GDP growth reached its lowest level in recorded history (10.5%), while inflation reached all-time highs (only to be topped during World War II) according to the Central Statistics Office and OECD data. The economy took a long time to recover and dissatisfaction with the colonial government’s handling of the pandemic fuelled India’s independence movement, led by Mahatma Gandhi (pictured), who contracted the influenza in its second wave.

South Africa saw 6% of the population die in six weeks

29 of 33 Photos in Gallery: Among the worst-hit countries was South Africa, where 300,000 people – or 6% of the population – died within six weeks. In September 1918, two ships arrived in Cape Town carrying soldiers suffering from influenza. Upon their arrival, troops were either put in isolation at a military hospital or quarantined in a military camp. Soldiers were then given three medical examinations before being demobilised&nbsp;around three days later.

Among the worst-hit countries was South Africa, where 300,000 people – or 6% of the population – died within six weeks. In September 1918, two ships arrived in Cape Town carrying soldiers suffering from influenza. Upon their arrival, troops were either put in isolation at a military hospital or quarantined in a military camp. Soldiers were then given three medical examinations before being demobilised around three days later.

The outbreak negatively impacted South Africa’s inflation rate

30 of 33 Photos in Gallery: However, local newspaper reports suggest that distancing measures weren’t&nbsp;put in place very strictly while soldiers were in quarantine, and medical examinations may have been less than thorough. Not long after the soldiers were discharged, cases began to spring up elsewhere in the country. The outbreak worsened the impacts of inflation from World War I, as well as the droughts of 1914 to 1916 and the floods of 1916 to 1917.

However, local newspaper reports suggest that distancing measures weren’t put in place very strictly while soldiers were in quarantine, and medical examinations may have been less than thorough. Not long after the soldiers were discharged, cases began to spring up elsewhere in the country. The outbreak worsened the impacts of inflation from World War I, as well as the droughts of 1914 to 1916 and the floods of 1916 to 1917.

South Africa’s Mineral Revolution

31 of 33 Photos in Gallery: During the 1920s, the South African economy began to recover thanks to the Mineral Revolution, where the country continued to industrialise and the mining sector flourished. However, prosperity wasn’t equally spread. Many young men from villages moved to work in mines or work camps, leaving rural areas deprived of labourers to construct buildings, grow crops or hunt. As a result, the rural poor were left behind in terms of development.

During the 1920s, the South African economy began to recover thanks to the Mineral Revolution, where the country continued to industrialise and the mining sector flourished. However, prosperity wasn’t equally spread. Many young men from villages moved to work in mines or work camps, leaving rural areas deprived of labourers to construct buildings, grow crops or hunt. As a result, the rural poor were left behind in terms of development.

Australia’s death rate was one of the lowest

32 of 33 Photos in Gallery: In Australia, around two-fifths of the population was&nbsp;infected with influenza and 15,000 died. This translates to a mortality rate of 2.7 per 1,000 people, which was one of the lowest recorded. Authorities put a strict maritime quarantine in place from October 1918, after learning of the outbreak in South Africa and New Zealand. The other measures that were put in place included street patrols of volunteers, making face masks mandatory in public, and Sydney closing&nbsp;all places of entertainment and schools.

In Australia, around two-fifths of the population was infected with influenza and 15,000 died. This translates to a mortality rate of 2.7 per 1,000 people, which was one of the lowest recorded. Authorities put a strict maritime quarantine in place from October 1918, after learning of the outbreak in South Africa and New Zealand. The other measures that were put in place included street patrols of volunteers, making face masks mandatory in public, and Sydney closing all places of entertainment and schools.

Spanish Flu led to the creation of Australia’s Department of Health

33 of 33 Photos in Gallery: One silver lining that came from the crisis was the formation of a federal Department of Health in 1921, which was created as a response to the differences in measures across the country. As with many other countries, Spanish Flu tended to affect working-age people hardest, which caused significant economic disruption. It also disproportionately impacted indigenous communities – for example, at one indigenous reserve in Queensland, 590 people were infected and 90 of them died, a death rate of just over 15%.&nbsp;  Now see the financial lessons we've learned from the COVID-19 pandemic

One silver lining that came from the crisis was the formation of a federal Department of Health in 1921, which was created as a response to the differences in measures across the country. As with many other countries, Spanish Flu tended to affect working-age people hardest, which caused significant economic disruption. It also disproportionately impacted indigenous communities – for example, at one indigenous reserve in Queensland, 590 people were infected and 90 of them died, a death rate of just over 15%.

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Greg_L-W.

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